Investment casting with brass and bronze enables the production of many different parts that require the properties of these copper-based alloys. Brass primarily consists of copper and zinc, though it may contain other elements. The proportions of these elements determine the alloy’s properties and color variations, which can range from yellow to red. The higher the percentage of zinc, the greater the strength and ductility. It is often used where low friction is needed, for parts such as valves, gears, bearings, locks, ammunition casings, doorknobs, as well as for plumbing and electrical applications and musical instruments. Bronze contains copper, usually tin and sometimes aluminum, phosphorus, manganese, arsenic, or silicon. It is a dull red in color. Depending on the composition, it can be used for a nearly endless number of applications, including bearings, bushings, gears, valve components, nautical uses, sculpture and many more.